A Scientific Spectrum

ask away, but B. cereus!    person(s) are interested in science!

waterbody:

sea lemon nudibranch. Moss Beach CA, Nov. 2012 / FH20 /

waterbody:

sea lemon nudibranch. Moss Beach CA, Nov. 2012 / FH20 /

(via fuckyeahbranchs)

— 18 hours ago with 233 notes

astronomy-to-zoology:

Twenty-plume Moth (Alucita hexadactyla)

…a species of many-plumed moth (Alucitidae) which is native to parts of Europe, but has been introduced into North America. Like other members of its family A. hexadactyla does not have the typical two pairs of scaled wings other moths have, instead it has ~20 thin plumes (which are also lined with small scales). Adult A. hexadactlya can be seen flying throughout most, if not all, of the year. A. hexadactlya caterpillars feed almost exclusively on honeysukle (Lonicera spp.) and are leaf miners, which means they will tunnel inside the leaf to feed whilst avoiding predators. 

Classification

Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Lepidoptera-Alucitidae-Alucita-A. hexadactyla

Image: ©entomart

(via biovisual)

— 20 hours ago with 243 notes
wildcat2030:

Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists - Large stretches may be no more than biological baggage, say researchers after comparing genome with that of other mammals - More than 90% of human DNA is doing nothing very useful, and large stretches may be no more than biological baggage that has built up over years of evolution, Oxford researchers claim. The scientists arrived at the figure after comparing the human genome with the genetic makeup of other mammals, ranging from dogs and mice to rhinos and horses. The researchers looked for sections of DNA that humans shared with the other animals, which split from our lineage at different points in history. When DNA is shared and conserved across species, it suggests that it does something valuable. Gerton Lunter, a senior scientist on the team, said that based on the comparisons, 8.2% of human DNA was “functional”, meaning that it played an important enough role to be conserved by evolution. “Scientifically speaking, we have no evidence that 92% of our genome is contributing to our biology at all,” Lunter told the Guardian. Researchers have known for some time that only 1% of human DNA is held in genes that are used to make crucial proteins to keep cells – and bodies – alive and healthy. The latest study, reported in the journal Plos Genetics, suggests that a further 7% of human DNA is equally vital, regulating where, when, and how genes are expressed. But if much of our DNA is so worthless, why do we still carry it around? “It’s not true that nature is parsimonious in terms of needing a small genome. Wheat has a much larger genome than we do,” Lunter said. “We haven’t been designed. We’ve evolved and that’s a messy process. This other DNA really is just filler. It’s not garbage. It might come in useful one day. But it’s not a burden.” (via Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists | Science | The Guardian)

wildcat2030:

Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists
-
Large stretches may be no more than biological baggage, say researchers after comparing genome with that of other mammals
-
More than 90% of human DNA is doing nothing very useful, and large stretches may be no more than biological baggage that has built up over years of evolution, Oxford researchers claim. The scientists arrived at the figure after comparing the human genome with the genetic makeup of other mammals, ranging from dogs and mice to rhinos and horses. The researchers looked for sections of DNA that humans shared with the other animals, which split from our lineage at different points in history. When DNA is shared and conserved across species, it suggests that it does something valuable. Gerton Lunter, a senior scientist on the team, said that based on the comparisons, 8.2% of human DNA was “functional”, meaning that it played an important enough role to be conserved by evolution. “Scientifically speaking, we have no evidence that 92% of our genome is contributing to our biology at all,” Lunter told the Guardian. Researchers have known for some time that only 1% of human DNA is held in genes that are used to make crucial proteins to keep cells – and bodies – alive and healthy. The latest study, reported in the journal Plos Genetics, suggests that a further 7% of human DNA is equally vital, regulating where, when, and how genes are expressed. But if much of our DNA is so worthless, why do we still carry it around? “It’s not true that nature is parsimonious in terms of needing a small genome. Wheat has a much larger genome than we do,” Lunter said. “We haven’t been designed. We’ve evolved and that’s a messy process. This other DNA really is just filler. It’s not garbage. It might come in useful one day. But it’s not a burden.” (via Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists | Science | The Guardian)

— 20 hours ago with 67 notes
currentsinbiology:

Epigenetic tie to neuropsychiatric disorders found
Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain’s prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, according to UC Irvine scientists.



This epigenetic alteration of gene activity in brain cells that receive this neurotransmitter showed for the first time that dopamine deficiencies can affect a variety of behavioral and physiological functions regulated in the prefrontal cortex.
The study, led by Emiliana Borrelli, a UCI professor of microbiology & molecular genetics, appears online in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
K Brami-Cherrier, A Anzalone, M Ramos, I Forne, F Macciardi, A Imhof, E Borrelli. Epigenetic reprogramming of cortical neurons through alteration of dopaminergic circuits. Molecular Psychiatry, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.67
Image via Resverlogix

currentsinbiology:

Epigenetic tie to neuropsychiatric disorders found

Dysfunction in dopamine signaling profoundly changes the activity level of about 2,000 genes in the brain’s prefrontal cortex and may be an underlying cause of certain complex neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, according to UC Irvine scientists.

This epigenetic alteration of gene activity in brain cells that receive this neurotransmitter showed for the first time that dopamine deficiencies can affect a variety of behavioral and physiological functions regulated in the prefrontal cortex.

The study, led by Emiliana Borrelli, a UCI professor of microbiology & molecular genetics, appears online in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

K Brami-Cherrier, A Anzalone, M Ramos, I Forne, F Macciardi, A Imhof, E Borrelli. Epigenetic reprogramming of cortical neurons through alteration of dopaminergic circuits. Molecular Psychiatry, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.67

Image via Resverlogix

(via eternalacademic)

— 1 day ago with 236 notes
bpod-mrc:

27 July 2014
Kettling Proteins
Prions are infectious proteins that can cause deadly diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease. They also infect yeast cells and this simple fungus has been found to produce a protein, Btn2, that targets prions and kettles them into a small area inside the cell, rather like the way riot police control an unruly crowd. When the cell divides, one of the two offspring is free from prions and can thrive. Intriguingly, Btn2 has similarities to human hook proteins, which play an important role in positioning components inside human cells so they can divide correctly. Pictured are three yeast colonies, the top right producing Btn2 and with mainly healthy cells (stained red) and some infected by prions (white). The lower colony is producing Cur1, a protein allied to Btn2 and has some healthy cells, while the top left colony is producing neither protein and is heavily infected.
Written by Mick Warwicker
—
Image by Reed Wickner and colleaguesNational Institutes of Health, USAOriginally published under a Creative Commons Licence (BY 4.0)Research published in PNAS, June 2014
—
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bpod-mrc:

27 July 2014

Kettling Proteins

Prions are infectious proteins that can cause deadly diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease. They also infect yeast cells and this simple fungus has been found to produce a protein, Btn2, that targets prions and kettles them into a small area inside the cell, rather like the way riot police control an unruly crowd. When the cell divides, one of the two offspring is free from prions and can thrive. Intriguingly, Btn2 has similarities to human hook proteins, which play an important role in positioning components inside human cells so they can divide correctly. Pictured are three yeast colonies, the top right producing Btn2 and with mainly healthy cells (stained red) and some infected by prions (white). The lower colony is producing Cur1, a protein allied to Btn2 and has some healthy cells, while the top left colony is producing neither protein and is heavily infected.

Written by Mick Warwicker

Image by Reed Wickner and colleagues
National Institutes of Health, USA
Originally published under a Creative Commons Licence (BY 4.0)
Research published in PNAS, June 2014

You can also follow BPoD on Twitter and Facebook

(via scinerds)

— 1 day ago with 182 notes
earthlynation:

Ornate Rainfrog (Pristimantis ornatissimus) (by Lucas M. Bustamante-Enríquez)

earthlynation:

Ornate Rainfrog (Pristimantis ornatissimus) (by Lucas M. Bustamante-Enríquez)

— 1 day ago with 679 notes